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High 7 Methods to Write CSS in Your React or Subsequent.js App

Cascading model sheets, or CSS, are a vital ingredient when creating dynamic and fascinating internet functions. Although quite a few approaches to writing CSS in our apps exist, selecting the right one can take effort and time.

Choosing the proper strategy will assist you create interesting and user-friendly internet apps whereas minimizing potential improvement points. Whether or not you’re a seasoned developer or new to internet improvement, our suggestions will make writing CSS in your app an pleasing and easy expertise.

This text will take a look at the next seven methods to jot down CSS in your React or Subsequent.js app:

  1. International CSS
  2. CSS Modules
  3. Preprocessor
  4. CSS in JS
  5. Utility Lessons
  6. CSS Frameworks
  7. Element Library

However most significantly, we’ll take a look at the trade-offs of every strategy. That means, you’ll be able to resolve the very best one which fits your venture.

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1. International CSS

International CSS is probably the most fundamental strategy for styling in Subsequent.js and React apps. This methodology defines types in a worldwide CSS file after which applies them to the complete app. That may work for a small app, but it surely doesn’t scale too nicely.

The primary downside you’ll encounter is that naming issues will get sophisticated due to too many CSS courses. You need to use a naming conference like BEM (block ingredient modifier) to deal with this. Nonetheless, you’ll in all probability find yourself utilizing !vital all over the place.

One other downside is that utilizing a really massive and inefficient CSS bundle slows down the app.


  • Fast and simple to implement.
  • No must import types into particular person elements.


  • Naming conflicts can happen.
  • Adjustments can inadvertently have an effect on different elements of the app.
  • Giant CSS bundle measurement slows down the app.

2. CSS Modules

CSS modules are an strategy adopted in Subsequent.js apps. CSS module information seem like common CSS. However they are often scoped to a person element, so that you don’t have to fret about naming collisions when writing your code.

In different phrases, you’ll be able to have two module information defining the identical class title. Since they’re scoped domestically, you don’t have to fret about them interfering with one another. Additionally, they inform Subsequent.js precisely which CSS must be loaded for a web page. This may cut back the scale of the CSS bundle. Nonetheless, there is a matter: you might must share types amongst a number of elements.

CSS modules present a particular property known as composes that may import and override code from completely different modules. CSS modules will simplify your life, however you’re nonetheless coping with plain CSS right here, so the modules lack programmatic options like loops, features, and mixins.CSS Modules


  • Encapsulation of types for higher group. 
  • Reusability of types throughout a number of elements.
  • Improved maintainability of types.
  • Constructed-in assist in Subsequent.js for straightforward use.


  • The training curve for establishing and utilizing CSS modules.
  • Compilation time might influence efficiency.
  • Restricted potential to create international types.

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3. Preprocessor

The normal means to enhance CSS is to make use of a preprocessor, which lets you write a distinct syntax, like Sass, Much less, or Stylus. Then, you need to use a compiler to transform that code into plain CSS. Probably the most prevalent model is SCSS, a superset of plain CSS that lets you write common CSS with extra options.

In Subsequent.js, we have to set up the Sass compiler. Then, we modified the file names in our venture. All of the compiling will occur within the background mechanically.

Now you can use options comparable to variables, mixins, and features to make your code extra concise and environment friendly. Sass is nice, however the issue is that it’s a completely completely different language. We now have to be taught it, and it’s utterly decoupled from our primary app code.Preprocessor


  • Further options for simpler and extra environment friendly styling.
  • Improved code group and readability.
  • Streamlined workflow.


  • Requires studying new syntax and options.
  • Requires extra configuration to be used in Subsequent.js.
  • Overuse can result in overly advanced and difficult-to-maintain code.

4. CSS-in-JS

Within the CSS-in-JS strategy, you’ll be able to write CSS in your JavaScript code utilizing libraries comparable to styled-components, Emotion, JSS, and Styletron. These libraries present the flexibility to jot down programmatic CSS types in JavaScript code through the use of the complete energy of JavaScript to generate types based mostly on the state of the app dynamically.

In Subsequent.js, you need to use a built-in answer known as Styled JSX to jot down CSS-in-JS code. To make use of it, open a mode tag inside your element, use the JSX attribute, and write your CSS types as a template literal string. With this, you’ll be able to interpolate values immediately contained in the model tag, making it straightforward to vary types based mostly on state modifications.

The types outlined with Styled JSX are restricted to the placement the place they’re outlined. This prevents them from affecting different types in your app, whereas CSS-in-JS gives a robust solution to write types by yourself.CSS-in-JS


  • Scoped types for element isolation.
  • Simpler code upkeep and understanding.
  • Dynamic types based mostly on element state.


  • The training curve for the brand new syntax.
  • Potential efficiency overhead.

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5. Utility Lessons

Utility class libraries like Tailwind and Windy CSS present an unlimited assortment of utility courses. They can assist you quickly construct a handsome UI.

Tailwind could be very highly effective. Nonetheless, it requires some extra tooling and configurations to get began after set up.

You possibly can model your elements with utility courses as a substitute of writing the CSS immediately. It is a a lot quicker solution to implement the design you need as a result of all of your types are proper at your fingertips with IDE intelligence. Additionally, utility courses can take away all of your unused CSS mechanically, leading to a really environment friendly bundle measurement.

However not all people likes the utility class strategy as a result of your element HTML code can spiral uncontrolled. It’s a vital funding, and you have to discover ways to organize your code appropriately.

One other drawback of Tailwind is that it doesn’t provide prebuilt elements, so you continue to must do plenty of work by yourself.Code example for with and without Tailwind Utility Class library


  • Modular and reusable.
  • Speedy improvement and consistency.
  • Lowered CSS file measurement.
  • Easy, responsive design.


  • Class overload and litter.
  • Restricted customization choices.
  • Elevated specificity points.

6. CSS Framework

There are lots of CSS frameworks accessible, comparable to Bootstrap and Bulma CSS, which differ from Tailwind.

The CSS Framework consists of prebuilt elements. You need to use them in your Subsequent.js apps with a sturdy set of types for elements like buttons and playing cards.

You possibly can set up Bootstrap with npm (npm set up bootstrap) after which import the Bootstrap CSS out of your node modules. To put it to use, begin referencing the courses in your elements; it’s easy, efficient, and has a low studying curve.

In case you solely make the most of the Bootstrap model sheet, you’ll be able to assemble your individual elements to bundle these types in a means that can be utilized effectively with different elements. For instance, you need to use a bootstrap button element to keep away from repeating the identical class names.

One problem, although, is that using Bootstrap on this method produces a big bundle measurement since many unused courses shall be included within the ultimate CSS. A extra tightly related system is most well-liked in terms of React.


  • Speedy improvement and prototyping.
  • Constant and responsive design.
  • Prebuilt UI elements.


  • The training curve for personalization.
  • Dependency on exterior framework.

7. Element library

The element library strategy makes use of a complete element library to supply ready-made options. Whereas Bootstrap affords such a library, the React ecosystem affords quite a few different design methods price exploring.

One notable design system I’ve not too long ago used and located spectacular is Antd. It not solely takes care of CSS-related duties but in addition affords a variety of utilities. These utilities get rid of the necessity for guide JavaScript coding, as they embody options like hooks for utilizing the intersection observer API to detect particular situations or occasions.

Materials Design, Rebase, Chakra, Mantine, and Tamagui are different libraries price testing.


  • Reusability and consistency.
  • Quicker improvement and prototyping.
  • Enhanced person expertise.


  • Studying curve and adoption.
  • Limitations in customization.

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Congratulations! You now know seven methods to cope with CSS in your React and Subsequent.js apps. This text mentioned the advantages and disadvantages of every of those approaches to help you in figuring out one of the simplest ways to make use of CSS in your venture. Thanks for studying!

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