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CSS border animations


Setting borders #

There are a few methods available to set a border on an element: border, outline, and box-shadow. As detailed in The 3 CSS Methods for Adding Element Borders by Stephanie Eckles, each approach comes with its own advantages and disadvantages–especially when it comes to animating the borders. The main reason to not use a proper CSS border is for animation purposes.

Border Animations using outline-offset by Kevin J. Powell

An article that recently caught my attention is Fantastic CSS border animation, where author Coco explored more options. By injecting generated content using ::before and ::after they create a faux border which is then animated.

What stands out the most to me are the supporting animated visualizations used in the article. They really help explain what exactly is being done to achieve the desired effect.

Border Animations using generated content by Coco

Both the white layer and colored lines are generated content. By fading the white layer in and out, it becomes clear how they stack and how the animation works.

Retaining the box model #

A disadvantage of using Generated Content to imitate a border is that you end up with a broken box model: the content can now obscure the faux border because said “border” is painted underneath. To mitigate, you have to apply the desired border-width as the padding.

To have a true border–and thus retain the workings of the box model–you can use multiple backgrounds which you then stretch out into the border area.

The basics #

Let’s start by creating a dotted border and adding the multiple backgrounds.

/* Size of the border */
--border-size: 0.5rem;

/* Create a dotted border */
border: var(--border-size) dotted lime;

/* Create two background layers:
1. A white semi-transparent
2. A layer with the colored boxes
*/

background-image:
linear-gradient(to right, rgb(255 255 255 / 0.5), rgb(255 255 255 / 0.5)),

conic-gradient(
from 45deg,
#d53e33 0deg 90deg,
#fbb300 90deg 180deg,
#377af5 180deg 270deg,
#399953 270deg 360deg
)
;

Sizing the backgrounds with background-origin #

As you can see there is something funny going on with the backgrounds here: they are painted into the border, but the conic-gradient seems to be all wrong. This is actually intended behavior: by default background images do not draw into the border as their origin is the padding-box of the element. To create a border after all, the set background images are repeated in the border itself, yielding the weird visual effect.

To solve this problem, you need to stretch out the background so it also occupies the size of the border. You could do this manually by stretching and repositioning the background, but best is to use the background-origin property to size the background against the border-box.

Browser support: chrome 1, Supported 1 firefox 4, Supported 4 edge 12, Supported 12 safari 3, Supported 3 Source

Don’t

/* Manually add or offset the size of the border where needed */
background-position: calc(var(--border-size) * -1) calc(var(--border-size) * -1);
background-size: calc(var(--border-size) * 2 + 100%) calc(var(--border-size) * 2 + 100%);

Do

background-origin: border-box;

This one addition makes everything look much better:

Shrinking the white background layer with background-clip #

With the backgrounds taking up all the space now, the semi-transparent layer needs to be shrunk down again. Instead of fiddling with background-size again, there is an easier way to do so: use background-clip and set it to padding-box. That way the background is no longer drawn underneath the area of the border.

Browser support: chrome 1, Supported 1 firefox 4, Supported 4 edge 12, Supported 12 safari 14, Supported 14 Source

background-clip:
padding-box, /* Clip white semi-transparent to the padding-box */
border-box /* Clip colored boxes to the border-box (default) */
;

Finally, make the border transparent to have the full effect.

border: 0.3rem dotted transparent;

Animation #

To restore animation of the border, you can manipulate the start angle of the conic-gradient.

--angle: 0deg;
conic-gradient(
from var(--angle),
#d53e33 0deg 90deg,
#fbb300 90deg 180deg,
#377af5 180deg 270deg,
#399953 270deg 360deg
);

Thanks to @property this becomes a breeze in browsers that support it:

Browser support: chrome 85, Supported 85 firefox, Not supported × edge 85, Supported 85 safari, Not supported × Source

@property --angle {
syntax: "&LTangle>";
initial-value: 0deg;
inherits: false;
}

@keyframes rotate {
to {
--angle: 360deg;
}
}

All combined, the code becomes this:

Bonus Content: border-image #

A previously covered approach to draw a gradient border is to use CSS border-image.

Browser support: chrome 16, Supported 16 firefox 15, Supported 15 edge 12, Supported 12 safari 6, Supported 6 Source

It allows for more simplified code as you do not need to deal with overlapping backgrounds. Animation can be applied in the same manner as before.

/* Create a border */
border: 0.5rem solid transparent;

/* Paint an image in the border */
border-image:
conic-gradient(
from var(--angle),
#d53e33 0deg 90deg,
#fbb300 90deg 180deg,
#377af5 180deg 270deg,
#399953 270deg 360deg
) 1
;

However, you’ll notice a few things no longer work with this approach:

  • The border-image does not follow the border-radius; it will always remain rectangular.
  • When setting border-image-slice to fill, the border-image is not painted underneath the set background but on top. This can be troublesome if you want the background to be semi-transparent.

In closing #

There’s a multitude of possibilities to animate borders in CSS. Depending on the use-case, you might lean into one or the other.

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