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The Arrival of Java 19

Oracle is proud to announce the overall availability of JDK 19. This launch is the tenth Characteristic Launch delivered on time by the six-month launch cadence. This stage of predictability permits builders to simply handle their adoption of innovation because of a gentle stream of anticipated adjustments.

Java’s capability to spice up efficiency, stability, and safety continues to make it the world’s hottest programming language. In line with an IDC report greater than 10 million builders – representing 75% of full-time builders worldwide – use Java.

JDK 19 is now out there!

One other essential change introduced with Oracle JDK 17 was the introduction of a brand new and easier license phrases which is able to enable corporations to make use of Oracle JDK 17 – together with the quarterly efficiency, stability, and safety patches – for gratis for at the least the subsequent three years, permitting one full yr of overlap with the subsequent LTS launch. Java SE subscribers get entry to Oracle’s Java SE Assist and industrial options similar to GraalVM Enterprise, Java Administration Service and the Superior Administration Console.

Java 19, Collectively

As with earlier releases, with Java 19 we proceed to have fun the contributions from many people and organizations within the OpenJDK Group — all of us construct Java, collectively!

JDK 19 Repair Ratio

The speed of change over time within the JDK releases has remained largely fixed for years, however underneath the six-month cadence the tempo at which production-ready options and enhancements are delivered has vastly improved.

As an alternative of constructing tens of 1000’s of fixes and delivering shut to at least one hundred JEPs (JDK Enhancement Proposals) each few years as we did with yesteryear Main Releases, enhancements are delivered in leaner Characteristic Releases on a extra manageable, predictable six-month schedule. The adjustments vary from important new options to small enhancements to routine upkeep, bug fixes, and documentation enhancements. Every change is represented in a single commit for a single subject within the JDK Bug System.

Of the 19,297 JIRA points marked as mounted in Java 11 by Java 19 on the time of their GA, 13,825 have been accomplished by folks working for Oracle whereas 5,472 have been contributed by particular person builders and builders working for different organizations. Going by the problems and collating the group information from assignees ends in the next chart of organizations sponsoring the event of contributions in Java:

In Java 19, of the 1,962 JIRA points marked as mounted, 1,383 have been accomplished by Oracle, whereas 579 have been contributed by different members of the Java neighborhood.

Oracle want to thank the builders working for organizations together with Alibaba, Amazon, ARM, Huawei, IBM, Intel, JetBrains, NTT Information, Pink Hat, SAP and Tencent for his or her notable contributions. We’re additionally grateful to see contributions from smaller organizations similar to Bellsoft, DataDog, Loongson, and Skymatic, in addition to unbiased builders who collectively contributed 6% of the fixes in Java 19.

We’re equally grateful to the various skilled builders who reviewed proposed adjustments, the early adopters who tried out early entry builds and reported points, and the devoted professionals who supplied suggestions on the OpenJDK mailing lists. 

The next people supplied invaluable suggestions on construct high quality, logged good high quality bugs, or provided frequent updates:

◉ Uwe Schindler (Apache Lucene)

◉ Martin Grigorov (Apache Tomcat, Apache Wicket)

◉ Rafael Winterhalter (Byte Buddy)

◉ Yoann Rodière (Hibernate ORM, Validator, Search, Reactive)

◉ Marc Hoffman (JaCoCo)

◉ Lukas Eder (JOOQ)

Moreover, by the High quality Outreach program we want to thank the next FOSS initiatives and people who supplied glorious suggestions on testing Java 19 early entry builds to assist enhance the standard of the discharge:

◉ Apache Derby (Rick Hillegas)

◉ Apache Zookeeper (Enrico Olivelli)

◉ BNYM Code Katas (Rinat Gatyatullin)

◉ RxJava (David Karnok)

◉ Apache Johnzon

◉ JobRunr

◉ MyBatis

◉ Renaissance

New in Java 19

Together with 1000’s of efficiency, stability and safety updates, Java 19 delivers dozens of recent options and enhancements, seven enhancements/adjustments rise to the extent of being managed by the JDK Enhancement Proposals – JEPs course of, together with 4 preview options and two incubator options.
Some new options not requiring a JEP embody new (D)TLS Signature Schemes, help for Unicode 14.0, further DateTime codecs and PAC-RET Safety on AArch64 programs.  Full particulars of those and lots of different new options might be discovered at
JEP Preview Options are totally specified and totally applied Language or VM Options of the Java SE Platform; and but impermanent. They’re made out there in JDK Characteristic Releases to permit for developer suggestions based mostly on real-world makes use of, earlier than them turning into everlasting in a future launch. This additionally affords instrument distributors the chance to work in the direction of supporting options earlier than they’re finalized into the Java SE Customary.
JEP Incubator modules enable placing non-final APIs and non-final instruments within the fingers of builders and customers to collect suggestions that may in the end enhance the standard of the Java platform.

The seven JEPs delivered with Java 19 are grouped into 4 classes mapping to key long-term Java expertise initiatives and {hardware} help.

Mission Amber

Improves developer productiveness by extending sample matching to specific extra refined, composable information queries. That is carried out by enhancing the Java programming language with report patterns to deconstruct report values. Document patterns and kind patterns might be nested to allow a robust, declarative, and composable type of information navigation and processing.

JEP 405 pertains to:

– [JDK 19] JEP 427: Sample Matching for change (third Preview)

Improves developer productiveness by enhancing Java’s code semantics. That is carried out by enhancing the Java programming language with sample matching for change expressions and statements. Extending sample matching to modify permits an expression to be examined towards various patterns, every with a particular motion, in order that complicated data-oriented queries might be expressed concisely and safely.

JEP 427 pertains to:

– [JDK 17] JEP 406: Sample Matching for change (Preview)
– [JDK 18] JEP 420: Sample Matching for change (Second Preview)
– [JDK 19] JEP 405: Document Patterns (Preview)


Mission Panama

The Overseas Operate & Reminiscence API presents worth in 4 distinctive methods:

Ease of use — Replaces the Java Native Interface (JNI) with a superior, pure-Java improvement mannequin.

Efficiency — Gives efficiency that’s akin to, if not higher than, present APIs similar to JNI and solar.misc.Unsafe.

Generality — Gives methods to function on totally different sorts of overseas reminiscence (e.g., native reminiscence, persistent reminiscence, and managed heap reminiscence) and, over time, to accommodate different platforms (e.g., 32-bit x86) and overseas features written in languages aside from C (e.g., C++, Fortran).

Security — Permits packages to carry out unsafe operations on overseas reminiscence however warn customers about such operations by default.

The Overseas Operate & Reminiscence API introduces an API by which Java packages can interoperate with code and information outdoors of the Java runtime. By effectively invoking overseas features (i.e., code outdoors the JVM), and by safely accessing overseas reminiscence (i.e., reminiscence not managed by the JVM), the API permits Java packages to name native libraries and course of native information with out the brittleness and hazard of JNI.

JEP 424 pertains to:

– [JDK 18] JEP 419: Overseas Operate & Reminiscence API (Second Incubator)
– [JDK 17] JEP 412: Overseas Operate & Reminiscence API (Incubator)

Improves efficiency attaining efficiency superior to equal scalar computations. That is carried out by Introducing an API to specific vector computations that reliably compile at runtime to optimum vector directions on supported CPU architectures, thus attaining efficiency superior to equal scalar computations. Vector APIs have been incubated in JDK 16, 17, and 18. JDK 19 incorporates suggestions from customers of these releases in addition to efficiency enhancements and implementation enhancements. It makes use of among the Overseas Operate and Reminiscence APIs which at the moment are mature sufficient to create this dependency.

JEP 426 pertains to:

– [JDK 16] JEP 338: Vector API (Incubator)
– [JDK 17] JEP 414: Vector API (Second Incubator)
– [JDK 18] JEP 417: Vector API (Third Incubator)

Mission Loom

Digital Threads are light-weight threads that dramaticaly cut back the trouble of writing, sustaining, and observing high-throughput concurrent purposes.

Digital Threads is the primary JEP as a part of Mission Loom. Mission Loom upgrades the Java concurrency mannequin to fulfill the wants of as we speak’s high-scale server purposes.

There are a number of nice issues about Java’s threads. They provide a pure programming mannequin, with readable, sequential code utilizing management move operators that customers perceive – loops, conditionals, exceptions. Customers get nice debugging and serviceability, and readable stack traces. And threads are pure models of scheduling for OSes. We wish to retain these benefits. 

The issue is that the implementation of threads by the OS is just too heavyweight. It takes too lengthy to start out a thread for every connection, however worse, the variety of threads the OS can help at anybody cut-off dates the variety of concurrent transactions a server can deal with — to effectively beneath the capability of the {hardware} or the community — and so threads develop into a extreme constraining issue on server throughput.

Many individuals assumed we’d embrace the asynchronous programming type provided by so-called “reactive” frameworks. By not representing concurrent operations straight as threads, it does scale past the bounds posed by the thread-per-request mannequin, however at an enormous value – rather more sophisticated code that’s tougher to write down, tougher to learn, and far tougher to debug or profile as a result of the platform in all its layers and its instruments, is constructed round threads. Reactive could also be the perfect folks can do with the present JVM, however our purpose is to do higher, which we will do by making threads lighter and extra scalable, letting builders preserve utilizing the mannequin and tooling they’ve been utilizing efficiently for years.

Builders as we speak have three dangerous choices: waste {hardware} by underutilization, waste programmer effort with worse programming fashions and observability, or change away from Java. So, Mission Loom presents builders a greater possibility.

Mission Loom timeline:

– Late 2017: Work on Loom begins

– Jul 2019: EA construct of Fiber prototype launched for suggestions

– Sept 2019: JEP 353 (Reimplement Legacy Socket API) shipped in JDK 13
– Sept 2020: JEP 373 (Reimplement Legacy DatagramSocket API) shipped in JDK 15

– Nov 2021: Early Entry builds of structured concurrency help launched for suggestions

– Nov 2021: Draft JEPs for digital threads and for structured concurrency revealed for remark

– Mar 2022: JEP 418 (Web Handle Decision SPI) shipped in JDK 18

– Sep 2022: Preview in JDK 19


Structured Concurrency simplifies multithreaded programming by introducing an API for structured concurrency. Structured Concurrency treats multipe duties working in numerous threads as a single unit of labor, thereby streamling error dealing with and cancellation, enhancing reliability, and enhancing observability.

New Port

Ports the JDK to the Linux/RISC-V structure. RISC-V is a free and open-source RISC instruction set structure (ISA) designed initially on the College of California, Berkeley, and now developed collaboratively underneath the sponsorship of RISC-V Worldwide. It’s already supported by a variety of language toolchains. With the growing availability of RISC-V {hardware}, a port of the JDK presents worth to builders.




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